Background[ edit ] France is one of the first two countries outside of Italy to start playing tarot, the other being Switzerland. While various types of tarot games were played in France since the 16th century, the dominant form now popular is the 19th-century rule set from Bourgogne-Franche-Comté. For ease of play, the late 19th century French-suited " Tarot Nouveau " or "Bourgeois Tarot" supplanted the Marseilles Tarot with depictions of typical fin de siècle genre scenes of French life and leisure.
In English, the game is tranzacționarea tarotului to as French Tarot or, sometimes, French tarot. This is to differentiate the card game from other uses of the tarot deck that are more familiar in the Americas and English-speaking countries, particularly the decks used for cartomancy and other divinatory purposes, and also to distinguish it from other card games played with a tarot deck. The unique feature that distinguishes French Tarot from other forms of tarot games is the over-trumping rule.
History[ edit ] Cards appeared in Europe towards the end of the 14th century and may have been introduced first through Italy or Catalonia. Initially called trionfi, meaning "triumph", whence the name "trump" in Tranzacționarea tarotului, the Italians later called them tarocchi as the idea of trumps spread to other card games. Both the Italian word tarocchi and the French word tarot occur from the early 16th century onwards, although it tranzacționarea tarotului unclear whether one was derived from the other.
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This describes a three-player, card game played with an Italian-suited pack with the Fool acting as an Excuse and the suits ranking in their 'original' order i. This ranking is retained in all Tarot games today except in France and Sicily. The original Italian-suited cards typified by the Tarot tranzacționarea tarotului Marseille came to be viewed as Italian and were replaced by French designs, notably the Tarot Nouveau.
It is also recorded that French soldiers were issued with Tarot packs during the Franco-Prussian WarFirst World War and Algerian Warleading in each case to the spread of le jeu de Tarot throughout France according to Dummett and Berloquin.
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However, the cards preferred for divination are the older Italian-suited packs or bespoke modern designs, which have occultic symbology, rather than the packs with scenes of everyday life like the French Tarot Nouveau and Austro-Hungarian Industrie und Glück packs. Deck[ edit ] Card values in French Tarot The game of tranzacționarea tarotului is played using a card tarot deck. This deck is composed of: 21 numbered trump cards atoutsand 1 unnumbered trump card: the "Excuse" or "Fool" L'excuse or Fou 3 of which oudlers are trumps with particular importance: the 1 of trumps, the 21 of trumps and the "Excuse" or Fool as tranzacționarea tarotului determine the contract the taker commits to in that particular game.
Rank of cards[ edit ] Three cards known as oudlers "honors" are of particular importance in the game: the 1 of trumps le petit or "Little one"the 21 of trumps le monde or "The World", a holdover from the name of this card in the Tarot of Marseillesand the Excuse the Fool.
These cards, when captured by the high bidder, lower the point threshold needed to fulfill the contract. In colloquial French, oudlers are often referred to as bouts ends. The ranking of the hearts, clubs, diamonds and tranzacționarea tarotului from the top is: King, Queen, Tranzacționarea tarotului, Jack, 10, 9, 8, 7, 6, 5, 4, 3, 2, 1 Ace.
As an aside, the trumps and Fool can be removed to yield a card deck very similar to a card French deck but with the additional Cavalier knight, lit. This deck configuration, plus the Fool, was copied using culture-neutral card designs and values to create the deck for the Rook game.
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Excuse[ edit ] The only card with a special effect is the "Fool", L'Excuse. The Excuse may be played on any trick; it "excuses" the player from following suit. However, it normally doesn't win the trick. The card also normally remains the property of tranzacționarea tarotului person who played it, not the winner of that trick; to compensate for this in the scoring count, the owner of the Excuse should instead give the winner of the trick a half-point card a trump other than an oudler, or a suited number card; see Scoring from his or her score pile.
If the side has taken all previous tricks, the card takes the last trick; if not, it changes hands to the other side, even if the trick is won by a partner or fellow defender of the person playing it. For 3 or 4 players 5 with a simple variation. The 4-player variant is usually considered the most challenging and is the one played in competitions.
The following rules are for 4 players. All trumps rank higher than any suited card; anyone who draws the Fool must redraw. From this point, the deal will pass to the right counterclockwise for each subsequent deal. The player at the left of the dealer cuts the deck.
The dealer then tranzacționarea tarotului out the entire deck, counter-clockwise, starting with the player on their right. Each player is dealt their cards in "packets" of three consecutive cards tranzacționarea tarotului a time they will each receive 6 such packets for a tranzacționarea tarotului of 18 cards.
In addition, a chien lit. A card may be dealt to the dog at any time, but the dealer may not: deal the dog two consecutive cards, deal the dog a card from the middle of a player's "packet", or deal the first or last card of the deck to the dog. A maldonne misdeal occurs when the dealer makes mistakes in the dealing; if this happens, the hand is redealt, either by the same dealer or the next in rotation. Players inspect, sort and evaluate their hands, and then tranzacționarea tarotului on to the bidding round.
Petit sec [ edit ] A player in possession of the Petit 1 of trump but neither any other trump nor the Fool must announce this fact; the hand is voided and this round will be redealt by the next dealer. Bidding[ edit ] The players look at the cards they have been dealt, and an auction begins, starting tranzacționarea tarotului the player to the right of the dealer, as all action proceeds counter-clockwise. By bidding, a player states their confidence that they will be able to meet a set contract see below and sets the terms by which they will try to do so.
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If a player does not wish to bid, they may "pass" but may not bid after having passed previously. One may only bid higher than the previous bidders.
The preneur "taker", sometimes called "declarer" as in Bridge is the one who wins this auction; they must try to meet the contract while all other players form the "defense" and attempt to prevent the taker from doing so. The level of player's bid is based on the strength of their hand, usually estimated by counting the points within it.
See evaluating one's hand below for a method to determine the points within one's hand. The bids are, in increasing importance: Prise "take" or petite "small" : if this is the winning bid the taker adds the "dog" to their hand, then confidentially sets aside a same number of cards of their choice, to bring their hand back to normal size before play begins.
The discarded cards form the beginning of the taker's score pile the tricks pile. The name of this stack evolves from "le chien" to "l'écart" "the aside".
Pousse "push" : same actions and scoring as a prise, but outranks the tranzacționarea tarotului and generally indicates a stronger hand value. This bid is not in the official rules, and is a holdover from an older bidding system see below. Garde "guard" : the same actions as prise, but the taker wins or loses double the usual stake.
Garde sans "guard without" the dog : the dog goes directly into the taker's score pile, and no-one gets to see it until the end of the hand.
The score is counted normally against the target number, but it is worth double the garde score 4x the base hand score to whoever wins the hand.
Garde contre "guard against" the dog : the dog goes directly into the opposing score pile, without being shown until the end of the hand.
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The score is counted normally against the target number, but it is worth triple the garde score 6x the base hand score to whomever wins the hand. If no one bids, the hand is void and the deal passes to the right of the current dealer.
On a prise, pousse or garde, the taker may not set aside a king or a trump, except that if the player cannot discard anything else, they may discard a non-oudler trump.
An oudler may never be set aside. In earlier rules, still played outside of tranzacționarea tarotului, in place of the prise and simple garde, there were two bids, in increasing importance: the petite small and the pousse push.
The prise is still sometimes known as petite.
There are also some players who play without the prise contract, with garde as the minimum allowable bid. Main phase[ edit ] The player to the right of the dealer leads the first trick, and the play proceeds counter-clockwise, with every player playing a card from his hand to the trick. Tricks are evaluated in a similar fashion as other trick-taking games with a trump suit; the highest trump, if played, takes the trick, and if trump is not played, the highest-value card of the led suit takes the trick.
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Every subsequent trick is led by the player tranzacționarea tarotului took the last trick. The leader of a trick can play any card they like. Once the leader of a trick has played a card, everyone else must follow suit play a card of that same suit, if they have one. If the first card played in a trick is the Fool, the required suit to follow is determined by the following card. If a player cannot follow suit, he must play a trump card if able, and additionally, the player is compelled to play a higher trump than tranzacționarea tarotului existing trump in the trick if he is able The "Petit" or 1 is valued lowest, and the "Monde" or 21 is valued highest.
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If a player must trump but cannot overtrump, they can play any trump. If a player cannot follow suit or trump, he may play any card tranzacționarea tarotului the trick, however any card they play in such a situation cannot win the trick.
If the trick is led with a trump, all other players must play a trump, and each trump must exceed the rank of all trump previously played in the trick if possible. If this is not possible, a lower-ranked trump, or any card if the player has no tranzacționarea tarotului, can be played.
The Fool L'Excuse may be played to any trick, instead of following suit or trumping. The Fool never wins the trick, unless it is played to the last trick and the side playing it has taken every previous trick.
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Tranzacționarea tarotului, it never changes sides, unless played to the last trick and the side playing it has not won every trick.
After playing the Fool to a trick, the player who played it simply takes the Fool back, places it into their scoring pile and gives the side who took the trick an "ordinary" card worth a half-point; see scoring below from their scoring pile.
The official FFT tournament rules do not cover the public or private nature of the contents of scoring piles during play.
Generally in trick-taking games, the contents of players' scoring piles are not public information during play of the hand, except in cases where a revoke is suspected a player not following suit, trumping or overtrumping when it was possible for them to do so.
A player is neither required to divulge the contents of his score pile, nor is he permitted to look through it except as necessary to find a half-point card to replace the Fool.
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Scoring[ edit ] When the last trick has been played, the round ends. The taker counts the number of oudlers and the point value of all cards in his scoring pile.
Alternatively, if the taker has taken the majority of tricks, the defenders can pool their scoring piles and count their oudlers and points; the taker has all remaining points. Value of the cards[ edit tranzacționarea tarotului Cards for scoring purposes are divided into two groups: "counters" face cards and oudlers and "ordinary" cards or cartes basses any suited pip card, and any trump except the 1 and Cards are paired, with each counter matched to an ordinary card, and remaining ordinary cards are also paired.