Main article: Galileo program Jupiter is the largest planet in the solar systemwith more than twice the mass of all the other planets combined. It noted that the technology to build a heat shield for an atmospheric probe did not yet exist, and facilities to test one under the conditions found on Jupiter would not be available until An important decision made at this time was to use a Mariner program spacecraft like that used for Voyager for the Jupiter orbiter, rather than a Pioneer.
Lunii a opțiuni vineri
Pioneer was stabilized by spinning the spacecraft at 60 rpmwhich gave a degree view of the surroundings, and did not require an attitude control system. By contrast, Mariner had an attitude control system with three gyroscopes and two sets of six nitrogen jet thrusters. Attitude was determined with reference to the Sun and Canopuswhich were monitored with two primary and four secondary sensors. There was also an inertial reference unit and an accelerometer.
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This allowed it to take high resolution images, but the functionality came at a cost of increased weight. A Mariner weighed kilograms 1, lb compared to just kilograms lb for a Pioneer.
Casaniwho had headed the Mariner and Voyager projects, became the first project manager. His discovery of what is now known as the Galilean moons orbiting Jupiter was an important evidence of the Copernican model of the solar system.
It was also noted that the name was that of a spacecraft in the Star Trek television show. The new name was adopted in February West Germany 's Messerschmitt-Bölkow-Blohm supplied the propulsion module.
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Galileo did both. One section of the spacecraft rotated at 3 revolutions per minutekeeping Galileo stable and holding six instruments that gathered data from many different directions, including the fields and particles instruments.
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The spacecraft was expected to last for at least five years—long enough to reach Jupiter and perform its mission. Each CPU was clocked at about 1.
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This microprocessor was the first low-power CMOS processor chip, quite on a par with the 8-bit that was being built into the Apple II desktop computer at that time. The 10 N thrusters were mounted in groups of six on two 2-meter booms. The fuel for the system was kg 2, lb of monomethylhydrazine and nitrogen tetroxide. Two separate tanks held another 7 kg 15 lb of helium pressurant.
The propulsion subsystem was developed and built by Messerschmitt-Bölkow-Blohm and provided by West Germany, the major international partner in Project Galileo. Chemical batteries would likewise be prohibitively large due to technological limitations.
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The solution was two radioisotope thermoelectric generators RTGs which powered the spacecraft through the radioactive decay of plutonium The heat emitted by this decay was converted into electricity through the solid-state Seebeck effect. This provided a reliable and long-lasting source of electricity unaffected by the cold environment and high-radiation fields in the Jovian system.
Each RTG contained 18 separate pas înainte două opțiuni binare înapoi source modules, and each module encased four pellets of plutonium IV oxidea ceramic material resistant to fracturing.
An outer covering of graphite provided protection against the structural, thermal, and eroding recenzii reale despre opțiunea optek of a potential re-entry into Earth's atmosphere. Additional graphite components provided impact protection, while iridium cladding of the fuel cells provided post-impact containment. The power output initially decreased at the rate of 0.
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The sixteen instruments, weighing kg lb altogether, included magnetometer sensors mounted on an 11 m 36 ft boom to minimize interference from the spacecraft; a plasma instrument for detecting low-energy charged particles and a plasma-wave detector to study waves generated by the particles; a high-energy particle detector; and a detector of cosmic and Jovian dust.
It also carried the Heavy Ion Counter, an engineering experiment to assess the potentially hazardous charged particle environments the spacecraft flew through, and an extreme ultraviolet detector associated with the UV spectrometer on the scan platform. The camera system was designed to obtain images of Jupiter's satellites at resolutions 20 to 1, times better than Voyager recenzii reale despre opțiunea optek best, because Galileo flew closer to the planet and its inner moons, and because the more modern CCD sensor in Galileo's camera was more sensitive and had a broader color detection band than the vidicons of Voyager.